The microcontroller register is divided into two types of registers and each bit of registers is explained by giving practical example with program. A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit. In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip (SoC); . Embedded Systems Microcontroller – Learn Embedded System and Microcontroller in simple and easy steps using this beginner’s tutorial containing .

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The oscillator circuit generates the clock pulses so that all internal operations are synchronized.

If there are more processor registersthis saving and restoring process takes more time, increasing the latency. Intel then released its first 16 bit microcontroller inunder name MCS Introduction of Microcontroller Architecture: One or more duplicate registers used only by the interrupt software, perhaps supporting a dedicated stack.

This is a quasi bi directional port with internal pull up. You may buy AT89S51 — from Atmel. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.

This chip would find its way into over one billion PC keyboards, and other numerous applications. Its some thing like multi tasking, doing more than one operation at a microcontrroller.

Let us have a look at each part or block of this Architecture of microcontroller.

Interview Question Answers based on Microcontroller

Also note that, two pulses of ALE are available for 1 machine cycle. Microcontrollers with specialty hardware may require their own non-standard dialects of C, such as SDCC for microcontroplerwhich prevent using standard tools such as code libraries or static analysis tools even for code unrelated to hardware features.


It is possible to access program memory and data memory simultaneously. Each bank has 8 registers which are designated as R0,R1…R7.

Firmware updates were equivalent to replacing the microcontroller itself, thus many products were not upgradeable. Hi Athraj As per your requirement we suggest you to follow the below link Model no P0 acts as AD0-AD7, as can be seen from fig 1.

Hi Anderson Mae We are very sorry to inform you that once you purchase the project we can provide the program code, documentation, audio and video visuals As per your project requirement please follow the below link http: The microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-to-market requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost.

A base station provides light for power and programming, and it receives the data. The system bus connects all the support devices with the central processing unit. Hello Sameer, Can you point me an example? In simple words counter counts the no of event is being exicuted while timer are basically used for time delay generation. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles, where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor DSPwith higher clock speeds and power consumption.

Most microcontrollers at this time had concurrent variants. Pins 1 — 8: Direct memory What location code memory space and data memory space begins?

Register banks form the lowest 32 bytes on internal memory and there are 4 register banks designated bank 0, 1, 2 and 3. Nicely explained,with easy language. These counters are again divided into a 8 bit register.


The Intel is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are limited to 8 bits. Hello, I am currently an electrical engineering student at university and I am working on a research and design project. Intel then released its first 16 bit microcontroller inunder name MCS Note: When GPIO pins are configured to an input state, they are often used to read sensors or external signals.

Therefore, it is impossible for program contents to be modified by the program itself.

Architecture 8051 Microcontroller and Block Diagram with Applicarions

If serial communications are involved then its best to use Microcontroller architectures vary widely. As mentioned above, control signals are used for external memory interfacing. One complete oscillation of the clock source is called a pulse.

A microcontroller can be considered a self-contained system with a processor, memory and peripherals and can be used as an embedded system.

This port microconteoller serves some other functions like interrupts, timer input, control signals for external memory interfacing RD and WRserial communication signals RxD and TxD etc. The other ports P0, P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional functions associated with them based upon microcontrol,er context of their usage. Therefore one machine cycle is 12 T-states.

Now lets talk about microcontroller in detail. At a time only one register bank is selected for operations and the registers inside the selected bank are accessed using mnemonics R

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