Purchase your copy of ASTM E – 02() as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM E at Engineering ASTM E – E – 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive informati.
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ASTM E – 02() – Standard Test Methods for Characterizing Duplex Grain Sizes
Assigning an average grain size value to a duplex grain size specimen does not adequately characterize the appearance of that specimen, and may even misrepresent its appearance. Users easily set calibration, choose preparation options and set the desired measurement method.
The test methods separate duplex grain sizes into one of two distinct classes, then into specific types within those classes, and provide systems for grain size characterization of each type.
Use Methods E to determine the size of the smallest grains found in the specimen, and Methods E to estimate the size of the largest grain found in the specimen. An example photomicrograph of a cross-section condition appears in Fig.
Examples of random duplex grain sizes include: Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.
A sample application of this procedure appears in Appendix X1, along with formulas for calculating mean intercept lengths, and area fractions.
E — 02 FIG. Duplex grain structures for example, multiphase alloys are not necessarily duplex in grain size, and as such are not the subject of these methods. The Planimetric Procedure of E does not lend itself to determination of grain size in distinct small areas, and so should not be used. A further example appears in Fig.
Use the lowest magnication that allows visual resolution of the coarse- and ne-grained areas as distinct regions. The operator can set any size field area using the Set Field button. All results may be erased by clicking on the “Erase All Results” button. An example photomicrograph of the banding condition appears in Fig.
Standard test methods for characterizing duplex grain sizes – CERN Document Server
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. These different applications are described in 8. Use of the grid is described in 8.
Results will be incorporated here when available. If duplex grain size is suspected in a product too large to be polished and etched as a single specimen, macroetching should be considered as a rst step in evaluation.
ASTM E1181 – 02(2015)
However, the test methods described here for area fraction estimation may be of use in describing duplex grain structures. For xstm tubular product, estimates of area fractions made on longitudinal sections are reasonable approximations of the same estimates made on transverse sections.
The chart shows different area percentages of light grains among dark grains. Results are also sent to an Excel spreadsheet – “Grainrpt.
Precision and Bias 9. An example photomicrograph of the ALA condition appears in Fig. If microscopic examination is subsequently necessary, individual aastm must be taken to allow estimation of area fractions for the entire product cross-section, and to allow determination of grain sizes representing the entire cross-section as well.
An example photomicrograph of the bimodal condition appears in Fig. For the coarse grain, the corresponding intercept length of It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to consult appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to its use. Examples of topological duplex grain sizes include: An example of such a histogram is shown in Fig.
For the ne grain, the total intercept length The grain size and area fraction values shown adtm that report format correspond to the appearance of the photomicrograph shown.
For all other products, area fraction estimates should be equally accurate with either specimen orientation.
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E — 02 The test methods provide for reporting of specic, distinctive information for each type of duplex grain size. Selecting only part of the specimen surface may inadvertently eliminate areas that have high or low concentrations of one of the grain sizes, thus biasing the estimate. An example photomicrograph of the necklace condition appears in Fig.
The test grid consists of a series of ne, parallel lines, with an interline spacing of 5 mm. The software provides fast and accurate detection of grain boundaries or grain face areas.
For example, averaging two distinctly different grain sizes may result e1811 reporting a size that does not actually exist anywhere in the specimen. For comparison of mechanical properties with metallurgical features, or for specication purposes, it may be important to be able to characterize grain size in such materials.
Use the “Duplex” button to start the programs designed to calculate duplex grain sizes. An example photomicrograph of the wide-range e11881 appears in Fig. Apply this practice to projected images from a microscope, ashm to photomicrographs. A tube whose wall thickness is small compared to its outside diameter may be treated as equivalent to a product of rectangular cross-section, in that a surface layer of a given depth at 5 the outside diameter covers essentially the same area as a layer of the same depth at the inside diameter.
Presentation of the data as a histogram or a frequency plot is also shown. Estimate the area fraction for the grain size xstm being evaluated as the number of grid points falling within the region, divided by the total number of grid points that lie within the total image outline the grid must be large enough to completely cover the total image.